There are four manufacturing methods, almost all the jewellery is made with the combination of various methods.
In a hand-fabricated item, every element is formed, assembled, joined and finished manually or using hand tools. The quality of a hand-fabricated piece depends on the skills of the craftsman. It is useful for projects that involve combining multiple gems from old mounting.
Also known as Investment Casing, this method is used for mass production as well as to make one-of-a-kind pieces. This type of manufacturing involves use of wax moulds to make silica shells in which metal is poured and allowed to harden. It is named so, since wax used for casting a mould is lost in the process.
The process starts with the manufacture of a steel pattern called a die, specially fashioned to create a particular jewellery item or component. A die-striking machine cuts out blanks of the size and shape needed for the jewellery to be made. The metal blanks, gold, silver etc. are struck between two dies, which forces the metal to enter each crevice in the die. It is often used to achieve styles that are strong and lightweight. It allows die-struck jewellery to be thin and lightweight without sacrificing durability. Die struck items need less finishing than cast and hand-fabricated stuff.
In this, wax copies are created and then coated with a thin, electrically charged layer of metal. The copies are then submerged in an electrically charged liquid that contains precious metal particles. These particles stick to the wax copies in layers. The wax melts out through a small hole in the rigid precious metal shell. This creates hollow jewellery that’s surprisingly big, bold, lightweight, durable and comfortable.